If you go to the Discover tab while in Workouts, you can scroll down and view workouts by each trainer, including Justin.
Peanuts are actually legumes, so they fall under the 'starchy carb, use sparingly' category.
The guidelines are explained a little more here:
Basically, you want to keep your added sugar intake under 40g per day. It's okay to have a meal with up to 20g of sugar, as long as less than 10g are added sugar. So the fruit in your smoothie is fine, because it's mostly natural sugar.
You're not supposed to have more than 10g of added sugar or more than 20g of total sugar. You can have sugar in small amounts, and more natural sugar is preferable to more refined sugar. You can read more in depth if you go Nutrition, then Resources.
If you go to the resources tab under nutrition, there's an overview of Balance all the way at the bottom. The main difference is that you can eat a certain number of the 'evil 6' in a week.
You can, but you're better off replacing it with something more nutritious. You can use quinoa or brown rice, which both have protein, or use spaghetti squash or zucchini to replace pasta.
Agave nectar is another form of sugar. It might be even worse than honey or regular sugar because it has a high fructose content (think high-fructose corn syrup, which is also something to avoid) and may be related to insulin resistance (that can lead to diabetes).
Vitamin water has a lot of sugar, about 30g per bottle. That's way too much to count as not having added sugar. And Vitamin water zero has artificial sweeteners. You should try to find something with less than 10g of sugar to drink. Or even better, try tea, coffee, or water.